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Archive for June, 2014

SOME COUNTRIES PRODUCE SO MUCH MORE OUTPUT PER WORKER THAN OTHERS: Basic Results 3

SOME COUNTRIES PRODUCE SO MUCH MORE OUTPUT PER WORKER THAN OTHERS: Basic Results 3

Our discussion starts from the premise that true simultaneity results in a positive correlation between the disturbance in our structural equation and social infrastructure. Recall that our system...

SOME COUNTRIES PRODUCE SO MUCH MORE OUTPUT PER WORKER THAN OTHERS: Basic Results 2

The main specification in Table 2 reports the results from instrumental variables estimation of the effect of a change in social infrastructure on the log of output per worker. Four instruments are...

SOME COUNTRIES PRODUCE SO MUCH MORE OUTPUT PER WORKER THAN OTHERS: Basic Results

SOME COUNTRIES PRODUCE SO MUCH MORE OUTPUT PER WORKER THAN OTHERS: Basic Results

Figure 2 plots output per worker against our measured index of social infrastructure. The countries with the highest measured levels of social infrastructure are Switzerland, the United States, and...

SOME COUNTRIES PRODUCE SO MUCH MORE OUTPUT PER WORKER THAN OTHERS: Instruments 3

SOME COUNTRIES PRODUCE SO MUCH MORE OUTPUT PER WORKER THAN OTHERS: Instruments 3

Our data on languages comes from two sources: Hunter (1992), and, to a lesser extent, Gunnemark (1991).17 We use two language variables: the fraction of a country’s population speaking one of the...

SOME COUNTRIES PRODUCE SO MUCH MORE OUTPUT PER WORKER THAN OTHERS: Instruments 2

The other important characteristic of an instrument is lack of correlation with the disturbance e. To satisfy this criterion, we must ask if European influence was somehow more intensively targeted...

SOME COUNTRIES PRODUCE SO MUCH MORE OUTPUT PER WORKER THAN OTHERS: Instruments

SOME COUNTRIES PRODUCE SO MUCH MORE OUTPUT PER WORKER THAN OTHERS: Instruments

Our choice of instruments considers several centuries of world history. One of the key features of the 16th through 19th centuries was the expansion of Western European influence around the world....

SOME COUNTRIES PRODUCE SO MUCH MORE OUTPUT PER WORKER THAN OTHERS: Identification

SOME COUNTRIES PRODUCE SO MUCH MORE OUTPUT PER WORKER THAN OTHERS:  Identification

To examine the quantitative importance of differences in social infrastructure as determinants of incomes across countries, we hypothesize the following structural model: ...

SOME COUNTRIES PRODUCE SO MUCH MORE OUTPUT PER WORKER THAN OTHERS: Estimating the Effect of Social Infrastructure 2

SOME COUNTRIES PRODUCE SO MUCH MORE OUTPUT PER WORKER THAN OTHERS: Estimating the Effect of Social Infrastructure 2

The second element of our measure of social infrastructure captures the extent to which a country is open to international trade. Policies toward international trade are a sensitive index of social...

SOME COUNTRIES PRODUCE SO MUCH MORE OUTPUT PER WORKER THAN OTHERS: Estimating the Effect of Social Infrastructure

Two important preliminary issues are the measurement of social infrastructure and the econometric identification of our model. Measurement The ideal measure of social infrastructure would quantify...

SOME COUNTRIES PRODUCE SO MUCH MORE OUTPUT PER WORKER THAN OTHERS: Determinants of Economic Performance 3

SOME COUNTRIES PRODUCE SO MUCH MORE OUTPUT PER WORKER THAN OTHERS: Determinants of Economic Performance 3

Thus the suppression of diversion is a central element of a favorable social infrastructure. The government enters the picture in two ways. First, the suppression of diversion appears to be most...

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